Pollution is the addition of any such constituent to air, water or land which adversely alters the natural quality of the environment.
Different harmful pollutants in environment that make environment unhealthy to live in. Dust, storms, rotting of vegetation, volcanic eruptions etc… are the natural phenomena which release dust particles and poisonous gases in the environment.
Pollution is a serious problem of the modern age. With rapidly increasing especially in developing countries, the problem is of great magnitude. There are many kinds of pollution.
The Shocking Revelation of Air Pollution
Possibly the biggest problem with air pollution is its transboundary nature. It travels freely around the planet knowing no borders and spreading toxins around many different regions of the world. Particularly for people living in large cities or in cities where there are many industries. The air above such places is heavily laden with dust, smoke, poisonous gases and offensive odour’s. The burning of fuels in the vehicles and industry and many other human activities are releasing poisonous compound in the environment. The poisons are harmful substances which contaminates or pollutes the air are called air pollutants.
Air Quality Testing
It affects both plants and human life directly and indirectly. Most gaseous air pollutants are tiny in size and are easily lodged within a person’s lungs. From there they can transport themselves straight into one’s blood supply and cause havoc within whole body. Some of air pollutants are larger in size and cannot enter the blood supply as freely as gaseous pollutants.
Sources of air pollutants
Carbon dioxide (Co), Sulphur dioxide (So), Oxides of Nitrogen (No and No2), Chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) etc… are the main air pollutants. Poisonous gases have been producing during the decay. It is combination of dead organic matter and particulate matter like soot, dust particles, pollens, metallic compounds (e.g. compounds of dead) etc… also pollute the air.
Carbon monoxide (Co) is a colorless and poisonous gas. It produces from the incomplete combustion of coal and other fossil fuels natural such as, gas and petrol. Smoke releases from motor vehicles and industries.It is the main source of carbon monoxide.
Carbon Monoxide Symptoms
It affects the human organ system badly and causes headache, it damages brain and causes respiratory problems. When carbon monoxide penetrates in our blood, it binds with hemoglobin and reduces its oxygen-carrying capacity.
Sulfur dioxide produces from the burning of coal or oil in factories. Smoke releases from thermal power stations usually contains sulfur dioxide.
Sulfur dioxide Health Effects
High concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) can result in breathing problems with asthmatic in children and adults, who are active outdoors. Short-term exposure has been linked to wheezing, chest tightness and shortness of breath.
Diesel exhaust is the gaseous exhaust produces from the diesel type internal combustion engine plus any contained particulates. Its composition may vary with the fuel type or speed of engine operation.
Nitrogen dioxide Pollution
It atmospheric chemistry, NO is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Oxides of nitrogen produces from the burning of coal and oil at high temperature in industries and vehicles engines. Nitrogen Oxides takes part in the formation of smog and acid rain. These gases also present in the tropospheric ozone.
Sources Of Nitrogen dioxide Pollution
(No) gases produce from the reaction among nitrogen and oxygen during combustion of fuels, such as hydrocarbons in air; especially at high temperatures, such as occurs in car engine. Anthropogenic hydrocarbons contamination of soil is a serious global issue due to contaminant persistence and the negative impact on human health.
Nitrogen oxides Health Effects
NO reacts with ammonia, moisture and other compounds to form nitric acid vapor and related particles. Small particles can penetrate deeply into sensitive lung tissue and damage it causing premature death in extreme cases. Inhalation of such particles may cause worsen respiratory diseases, such as emphysema or bronchitis, or may also aggravate exiting heart diseases.
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine and fluorine produces as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane. Various scientists study during 1970s , revealed that CFCs releases into atmosphere accumulate in the stratosphere, where they had a deleterious effect in the ozone layer. At room temperature these are colorless gases or liquids which evaporate easily.
Effects Of CFC
These gases can become a cause of skin cancer in human and in genetic damage in many organisms. Inhalation is a result of it. High levels inhalation can affect the lungs, heart, liver, kidney and internal nervous system.
Most CFCs release to the atmosphere through the use of aerosol containing material as leakages from refrigeration equipment.
Ozone layer presents both in the Earth’s upper atmosphere and at the ground level.Good ozone is a stratospheric ozone. Good ozone naturally in the upper atmosphere, where it forms a protective layer that shields us from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays.Bad ozone emits directly into the air, but it does not create through the chemical reaction between oxides of nitrogen (NO) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), which presents in the sun light.
In the middle of the 1980s, scientists warned of the formation of a big “ozone hole” in the atmosphere above the Antarctic continent. It is due to air pollutants such as, CFCs. But the good news is that this hole is diminishing.
How can we control air Pollution
- We can control air pollution if we use special devices in the factories to remove poisonous gases from the fumes before this, we release them into the atmosphere.
- We should use gas and electric sources instead of coal and other fossil fuels.
- Trees should plant in the cities and towns to reduce the air pollution.
10 Important Facts That You Should Know About Water Pollution
Water pollution is the contamination of water e.g. (lakes, streams, aquifers and groundwater). It causes of many kinds of domestic and industrial wastes poured into streams, rivers and lakes. It may consist of dead remains of animals and plants which lead to bacterial growth, reducing the amount of oxygen dissolved in water.
Water pollution Effects On Human Health
Water pollution causes cholera, typhoid and other diseases to the population which uses this water. The polluted water damages fishes and other aquatic life. It affects the entire biosphere plants and organism living in this damage water.
Water pollution Prevention
We can prevent from the water pollution if we do not release dead remains of animals and plants in the freshwater and sewage fully treats before this, we release it into the rivers or lakes.
Sound pollution is defined as unwanted or unpleasant noise that causes of temporary disruption in hearing. It has become an ever increasing problem in this age of mechanical inventions. Excessive noise can destroy a person’s hearing.
Causes of Sound Pollution
- Use of high-pressure horns in the vehicles.
- Use of faulty machines in the industries.
- Play the loudspeakers less you can use on some occasions.
- Industrial workshops in urban areas.
- Other major sources are trains, automobiles, jets, aero planes and high volume radio and television transmissions.
Sound Pollution Effects
Sound pollution became a cause of sharp heartbeat, high blood pressure and gastric-intestinal problems. It decreases the ability of memorization. A sudden burst of sound can cause acute damage to the eardrum and may cause temporary or permanent deafness. Its long-lasting effects are insomnia, bulimia, anxiety and depression.
How Can We Reduce Sound Pollution?
To reduce sound pollution, we should use low pitch horns and effective silencer in vehicles. We should make do proper service and tuning of vehicles. To reduce the intensity of sound, we should adopt modern mechanical and electrical machinery in industries. To control the noise, we should avoid overuse of loudspeakers and sound systems.
The amount of greenhouse gases has increased in the atmosphere due to human activities and the burning of fuels. The increase in the rate of the greenhouse effect and ozone depletion is increasing the average temperature of the earth. As a result; the earth’s globe is getting warmer. This is called global warming.
What Is Acid Rain?
Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the major precursors of acid rain, which has acidified soils, lakes and streams, accelerated corrosion of buildings and monuments and reduce visibility.
Acid Rain Formation
Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen are present in the atmosphere as air pollutants. They get dissolved in water vapors in clouds and turn into acid and nitric acid. These acids make the rainwater acidic.
Acid Rain And Its Effects
Acid rain affects the animals, plants and buildings badly. It kills the aquatic life in rivers, lakes pound, and destroys the leaves and barks of the trees. It corrodes the metals and the stones used in buildings. The acid rain water flowing into the fields makes the soil acidic. The crops do not grow well in acidic soil. Micro- organisms present in the soil and acid rain affects on them.
Deforestation means removing or cutting down the large area of forest. Forests are our great wealth. Deforestation occurs in the form of cutting trees for agriculture, ranching and development, unsustainable logging for timber and degradation due to climate change. It is estimated that 15% of all greenhouse gas emissions are the result of deforestation. They bring favorable changes in climate of an area. Deforestation is also a big reason for pollution.
Effects of Deforestation
Eighty percent of the earth’s animals and plants live in forest and many cannot survive with deforestation that destroys their homes. Deforestation also causes climate change. Forest soil is moist but without protection from sun-blocking tree cover they quickly dry out. Trees also perpetuate the water cycle by returning water vapors to the atmosphere. Three million people worldwide live in forests and 1.6 billion depends on them for their livelihood. Forests also supply the oxygen that we need to survive. Forests are home to the world’s terrestrial biodiversity. These ecosystems are complex webs of organisms that include plants, animals, fungi and bacteria, and deforestation affects all these organisms.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimated that 18 million acres (7.3 million hectares) of forests are lost each year. The Amazon, the planet’s largest rainforests, lost at least 17% of its forest cover in the last half-century due to human activities.
Causes of Deforestation
Overgrowing demand for food products, huge amount of trees and plants for cattle grazing, wood based industries like (paper, match, sticks, furniture) etc… needs a substantial amount of wood supply over population are the main causes of deforestation. Similarly many industries release their wastes into the river results in soil erosion and makes it unfit to grow plants and trees. Hundreds of trees are lost every year due to forest fires in various portion of the world. This happens due to extreme warm summers.
How Can We Stop Deforestation?
To adopt various useful ways, we can save both our forests and animals. Plant the trees, use minimum papers, purchase recycled items, eat vegetarian meal as far as possible, use plastic furniture, use coal and gas instead of wood, if we act upon these things we can stop deforestation.